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Titanium Sapphire Laser Crystals

Titanium doped sapphire(Ti3+:Al2O3) is widely used for tunable lasers and femtosecond solid-state lasers.It was first used as a gain medium in 1986, and till now, it is still the best material for ultrashort pulse generation. The substrate-sapphire has good physical and optical properties. High thermal conductivity and good alleviating thermal effects provide the usability for high power laser.

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Product Details

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Description

Ti:Sapphire (Titanium doped Sapphire, Al2O3:Ti3+) has a wide range of emission band from 660 to 1050 nm, which faciitates a variety of existing and potential applications, such as tunable continuous-wave lasers, mode-locked oscillators, chirp-pulse amplifiers, thin disk oscillators/amplifiers and lidars. Moreover, the absorption band of Ti:Sapphire is centered at 490 nm, ranging from 400 to 650 nm, which makes it suitable for pump sources of many different lasers, for example, argon ion, frequency doubled Nd:YAG (Nd:YLF), and copper vapor lasers. Because of 3.2 μs fluorescence lifetime, Ti:Sapphire crystals can be effectively pumped by flash lamps in high-power laser systems.

In order to obtain good quality of Ti:Sapphire crystals, the Ti3+ doping concentration has to be kept fairly low (e.g. 0.15% or 0.25%). Therefore limited pump absorption usually enforces the use of a crystal length of several millimeters, which in combination with the small pump spot size (for high pump intensity) means that a rather high pump brightness is required. Fortunately, Sapphire has also an excellent thermal conductivity, alleviating thermal effects even for high laser powers.

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Features

•  Large gain-bandwidth

•  Very large emission bandwidth

•  Excellent thermal conductivity

•  Short excited-state lifetime (3.2 us)

•  High saturation power

•  Relatively high laser cross-sections

•  High damage threshold

•  Strong Kerr effect

•  Wide possible pump wavelengths

 

Applications

•  Femtosecond pulse lasers 

•  High repetition rate oscillators 

•  Chirped-pulse laser amplifiers 

•  Multi-pass amplifiers 

•  Regenerative amplifiers

•  Wavelength tunable CW lasers 

•  Pulsed X-ray generation

•  Thin disk oscillator

•  Petawatt laser systems

 

Parameters

Property

Value

Chemical formula 

Ti3+:Al2O3

Crystal structure

hexagonal

Orientation

A-Axis within 5°,E-vector parallel to C-Axis

Mass density 

3.98 g/cm3

Moh hardness

9

Young's modulus

335 GPa

Tensile strength

400 MPa

Melting point

2040 °C

Thermal conductivity

33 W / (m K)

Thermal expansion coefficient 

≈ 5 × 10-6K-1

Thermal shock resistance parameter

790 W/m

Refractive index at 633 nm

1.76

Temperature dependence of refractive index 

13 × 10-6K-1

Ti density for 0.1% at. doping 

4.56 × 1019 cm-3

 

 Specifications

Property

Value

Fluorescence lifetime

3.2 μs

Emission wavelength

660~1100 nm

Central emission

800 nm

Concentrations

(0.05~0.35) wt%

End Configuration

Flat/Flat or Brewster/Brewster ends

Emission cross section at 790 nm (polarization parallel to the c axis) 

41 × 10-20 cm2

Absorption Coefficient

0.5~6.0 cm-1

Central absorption wavelength

490 nm

Figure of Merit(FOM)

100~300

Coatings

Standard coating is AR with R < 5.0% each face @532 nm and R < 0.5% each face, from 650 nm to 850 nm. Custom coatings supported.

 

Polishing Specification

Property

Value

Orientation Tolerence

<0.5°

Thickness/Diameter Tolerance

±0.05 mm

Surface Flatness

<λ/8 @632 nm

Wavefront Distortion

<λ/4 @632 nm

Surface Quality

10/5

 

Parallel

30〞

Perpendicular

15ˊ

Clear Aperture

>90%

Chamfer

<0.2×45°

Maximum dimensions

dia 150mm

 

Standard products

Aperture dimension/mm

Length/mm

End surface

Coatings

FOM

6

5

Brewster Cut

-

>120

10

>150

15

>150

20

>180

5

Right-angle Cut

(R<1%)@532 nm + (R<0.3%)780-820 nm

>120

10

>150

15

>150

20

>180

6x6

5

Brewster Cut

-

>120

10

>150

15

>150

20

>180

5

Right-angle Cut

(R<1%)@532 nm + (R<0.3%)780-820 nm

>120

10

>150

15

>150

20

>180

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