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Nd YAG Laser Crystals

Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:Y 3 Al 5 O 12 or Nd:YAG) crystal, which continues as the best of the rare earth garnet materials that are characterized by four-level laser operation which permits low threshold pulse and CW operation.

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Laser Crystal—Nd:YAG

1 Description

Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:Y3Al5O12 or Nd:YAG) crystal, which continues as the best of the rare earth garnet materials that are characterized by four-level laser operation which permits low threshold pulse and CW operation. It is the most mature and widely used solid-state laser material adopted by R&D, medical, industrial and military customers. Its main and obvious advantages are: high gain, low threshold, high efficiency, low loss at 1.064 µm, as well as high optical quality, good thermal conductivity and thermal shock characteristics, stable chemical and mechanical properties, which make Nd:YAG as the most suitable and commercial laser material for various modes of operation (CW, pulsed, Q-switched, mode locked and cavity dumped).

 

2 Features

•  Wide absorption bandwidth

•  Low lasing threshold

•  High slope efficiency

•  Large luminescence cross-section

•  Linearly polarized emission and single-mode output

 

3 Applications

•  Laser cutting

•  Laser welding

•  Laser marking

•  Laser ranging

•  Laser surgery

 

4 Main Specifications

Materials

Nd:YAG

Nd Concentration tolerance (atm%)

0.3-1.5%

Orientation

[001] or [110] or [111] < ±0.5°

Parallel

10〞

Perpendicular

surface Quality

10/5

Wavefront Distortion

λ/4@632nm

Surface Flatness

λ/8@632nm

Clear Aperture

>95%

Chamfer

<0.2×45°

Thickness/Diameter Tolerance

±0.05 mm

Maximum dimensions

dia (3~12.7)×(3~150)mm

Coatings

AR/AR@940+1030;HR@1030+HT@940+AR1030


5 Material characteristics

Physical and chemical characteristics

Properties

Nd:YAG

Crystal Structure  

cubic - la3d

Lattice Constants

12.01Ä

Density  

4.56 g/cm3

Melting Point  

1950°C

Refractive Index  

n= 1.8197 @1.064 µm  

Thermal Conductivity /(W·cm-1·K-1@25°C)

0.14 W

Specific Heat/ (J·g-1·K-1)

0.59

Thermal Expansion /(10-6/°C@25°C ) 

6.9

Hardness (Mohs)  

8.5

Young`s Modulus /GPa

317  

Shear Modulus / GPa

54.66  

Extinction Ratio

25dB

Poisson Ratio

0.25

 

 Optical characteristics

Properties

Nd:YAG

pump transition wavelength, λp (nm)  

808

laser transition wavelength, λl (nm)

1064

pump transition bandwidth,Δλp (nm)

<4

laser transition bandwidth, Δλl (nm)

~0.6

pump transition peak cross section,σp (E-20 cm2)

6.7

laser transition peak cross section, σl (E-20 cm2)

28

pump transition saturation intensity,φp (kW/cm2)

12

laser transition saturation intensity, φl (kW/cm2)

2.6

laser transition saturation fluence, Γl,sat (J/cm2)

0.6

minimum pump intensity, Imin (kW/cm2)

~0

upper laser manifold lifetime,τ(msec)

0.26

quantum defect fraction

0.24

fractional heat generation

0.37

 

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Absorption Spectrum of 1%Nd:YAG crystal

 

6 Standard products

Aperture, mm

Length, mm

Doping, %

Wedge of the ends, deg

dia 3

65

0.8

0/0

dia 3

65

1.1

0/0

dia 4

65

0.8

3/3 parallel

dia 4

65

1.1

3/3 parallel

dia 4.5

20

1

0/0

dia 6.35

85

1.1

3/3 parallel

dia 8

85

1.1

3/3 parallel

dia 10

85

1.1

3/3 parallel

dia 12

100

1.1

3/3 parallel

dia 12

100

0.8

3/3 parallel

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